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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Dec 9;56(16) doi: / Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods: The Foods for the Future World.
Table of contents

Thus, the concept of nutraceuticals reinforces a health-related aspect within the idea of diet as everyday nourishment, and more specifically, it serves to functionalize food. Such modern views about health and diet are largely outcomes of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. In the centuries that followed, food increasingly came to be analyzed and ultimately separated into its functional elements e. This area of research is closely linked to nutrigenetics. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics can be used to guide decisions regarding the incorporation of nutraceuticals into personalized diets.

This is valuable especially in helping to overcome specific nutrient deficits associated with genetic anomalies. The emergence of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics has provided enormous opportunity for the translation of scientific advance into consumer benefits. Indeed, knowledge of human dietary needs has grown tremendously since the beginning of the 20th century, and scientists have been working to refine their understanding of the nutrigenomic aspects of food.

The continued study of the impact of human genetic makeup on food and of the effects of food constituents on gene expression not only strengthens the genetic basis for personalized diets but also can be used to help consumers make informed decisions about nutraceutical purchases. A key criticism of nutraceuticals is related to their potential use as a substitute for a healthy diet or lifestyle. As a case in point, in the early 21st century, nutraceutical use was deemed to be ineffective in preventing obesity.

Furthermore, people can improve their diets by other means, such as by increasing fruit and vegetable intake. However, it is unclear what specific contribution is made by making these changes, such as whether more fruit in the diet translates to higher levels of disease-fighting antioxidant compounds in the body.

With humans having evolved as a species that consumes a very diverse diet, the key may be to aim for such diversity in consumption. Adding nutraceuticals to the diet may be one way by which some people succeed in developing a healthy diet. However, adding nutraceuticals to the diet is not as straightforward as it might seem.

The food-medicine interface

The development and use of nutraceuticals are embedded within a broader debate about how people adapt their food intake in the context of changing environmental conditions and lifestyles and increasing globalized exchange of ideas and products. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.

Dietary Supplements Though they may purport to serve the same purposes, functional foods look like food , while dietary supplements appear drug-like and can induce drug-like reactions in high enough concentrations.

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Confused yet? Dietary supplements look like drugs and are made from food, isolated nutrients or food-like substances to augment health. Nutraceuticals are a sector of dietary supplements made only from whole foods to augment health. So, what does this have to do with Spinaca Farms and why do we care? Previous Next. Figure 3. Some nutraceutial sources from food products or its ingredient for reduction of cardiovascular disease with its possible risk factors Sustainable health is also reported for healthy and active ageing without the risk of diseases.

Healthy foods and functional foods are needed to achieve this health via accomplished by delivering high quality care with improvement of public health and also maintenance of natural resources without severe ecological damage.

Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals - Course

It can protect and improve health for present and future generations via taking as a healthy nutrition with functional foods. Minimizing the environmental impact on health and nutrition are required for healthy life 17 , Traditional nutraceuticals are made up of the food without any manual changes and its components are natural with some potential of health benefits. Lycopene in tomatoes vegetable are best example. Nontraditional nutraceuticals has capability to boost nutritional content by addition of nutrients, dietary components with improvement of quality of nutrition and b- carotene enriched rice is food example of this class Fortified nutraceuticals are synthesized from fortification of food components which is completed by addition of micronutrients trace elements or vitamins to food.

It has enhanced the effectiveness and nutritional value of formulated food products and milk fortification is done with cholecalciferol for treatment of Vitamin D deficiency patients Application of biotechnology and genetic engineering has helped in recombinant nutraceuticals synthesis which is involved the production of energy providing foods yoghurt and cheese or extraction of bioactive components by enzymatic or fermentation technology.

Gold kiwifruit has contained high contents of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin and it has genetically modified to get it and shown in Table 1 22 , In this paper, author will discuss some of potential nutraceuticals products which is prepared by biological mean or obtained from some natural plant sources. Chemical synthesis and extraction of lycopene have been done from tomatoes fruits, but microbial production of lycopene is found more economical and sustainable ways.

Microbial lycopene production has started from various microbial strain including Blakeslea trispora , E. Due to food safety issues, use B. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as industrial organism and it is generally recognized as safe GRAS for robust and preferred use with its enhanced lycopene yield It has shown that combinatorial engineering in S. CrtI from Blakeslea trispora BtCrtI has shown excellent performance on lycopene production and also lycopene proportion in carotenoid Expression level of BtCrt I has been fine-tuned for evaluation of effect of cell mating types.

Distant genetic targets YJL W encodes functional protein , ROX 1 encodes putative regulator protein of hypoxic, and DOS 2 control of single-copy DNA replication deletion with up-regulation of stress-responsive transcription factor INO2 for formation of a complex with the INO1 promoter have been done for modification of carotenogenic pathway and resulted with enhanced lycopene yield about fold from 2. Further fed-batch fermentation has helped the lycopene production yield of Lycopene is one of member of carotenoid family and used as an efficient antioxidant and singlet oxygen quencher and itsdemand has been increased in the nutraceutical and drug industry.

And researchers are putting more efforts to synthesize the effective microbial strain and methods for production of lycopene in cost effective manner at large scale for fulfilling the growing demand.

Functional foods or nutraceuticals

Thermal processing has helped in liberation this carotenoid from complexes with proteins via increasing its bioaccessibilty In natural process, lycopene content is obtained from fruit peels of guava, papaya, watermelon and red dragon fruit as best sources. UV—vis spectrophotometer has helped in measuring of lycopene content whereas identification of lycopene has done by using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC.

Response surface methodology RSM using faced centered composite design FCCCD has applied to study the interaction among temperature, time and solid-solvent ratio for maximum lycopene yield In chemical synthesis, the lycopene oleoresin has been saponified using a mixture of propylene glycol and aqueous alkali for getting lycopene crystals fit for human consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography has helped in identification of constituents of the total lycopene oleoresin after saponification with lycopene The dehydrated papaya peels has been also utilized for the extraction of lycopene which is standardized for the maximum recovery of the pigment by using response surface methodology with use of three independent variables and their levels based on Face Central Composite Design.

Lycopene content in papaya peels has reported to varied between This bacterium is gone for desaturation of phytoene via enzyme phytoene desaturase CrtI catalysis for leading to neurosporene Later lycopene is produced via involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four. Chromosomal insertions of akanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC and crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene as the major carotenoid.

What is the Difference Between Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Spectroscopic and biochemical evidence in vivo has shown the lycopene incorporation into the light-harvesting complex1 44 , Introduction up to 40 consecutive copies of heterologous carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes into the E. Phytosterols or plant sterols are belong to family of cholesterol molecules with structural similarity and are found in the cell membranes of plants, playing important roles like cholesterol in humans. Campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol are reported most common phytosterols in the human diet. It has acted in the intestine to lower cholesterol absorption and it needs to present in healthy human diets with minimum risk of coronary heart disease Plant immunity has reported to involve the pathogen-associated molecular pattern PAMP -triggered immunity PTI and effector-triggered immunity ETI which is found to develop the non-host resistance in all members of a plant species due to potentially pathogenic microbes.

Pathogens have derived of nutrients from host plants with development of relationship between apoplastic nutrient levels and bacterial growth. A species of Arabidopsis plant Arabidopsis thaliana is reported as sterol methyltransferase 2 mutants and found to involve in sterol biosynthesis with resultant to plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens.

Arabidopsis cytochrome P CYPA1 has capability to encode Csterol desaturase which can convert b-sitosterol to stigmasterol due to induced inoculation with nonhost pathogens An Arabidopsis Atcyp A1 with null mutant has developed both nonhost and basal resistance. Phytosterols are steroid compounds in most of plants with structural and functional similarity to cholesterol of human. Phytosterols can lower the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels in human or animals via direct inhibition of cholesterol absorption through displacement of cholesterol from mixed micelles.


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Stanols in phytosterols are more efficient in lowering cholesterol levels than sterols unsaturated. Phytosterols have some substitutions at the C24 position on the sterol side chain Plasma phytosterol in mammalian tissues are low in concentration due to poor absorption from the intestine but faster excretion is reported from the liver. Adverse effects of phytosterols are reported in few group of individuals with phytosterolemia an inherited lipid disorder with reduction in plasma levels of nutrients carotenoids.


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Phytosterols and their derivatives have promoted the health of man and animals via encouraging their consumption in the population 56 , Steroid compounds are widely marketed products of pharmaceutical industry. The complexity of steroid molecules can be minimized by use of biocatalysts for high regio- and stereo-selectivity of the reactions The mild conditions are required for bioconversions which led to the development of high yield in biological production processes with environmentally friendly than their chemical synthesis as a major concern of industrialists.

Prebiotic foods are reported as non-digestible foods in human digestive system onions, garlic, bananas, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root, beans, and skin of apples, or others prebiotic fiber and it is mostly reported in small intestine and has capability to stimulate the favourable growth or enhanced the activities of indigenous probiotic bacteria. And it reaches to large colon and it is feed by colonies of beneficial bacteria probiotic bacteria and helped in increasing desirable bacteria number in our digestive systems gut with association to better health and reduced disease risk Prebiotic therapies has been reported to cure gut related diseases constipation relief, suppression of diarrhoea, reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes and prebiotics are associated with sufficiently enriched with fibers needed for proper gut work Probiotics are reported as live and beneficial bacterial culture and their metabolites is naturally created by fermentation in foods and yogurt, sauerkraut, miso soup, kimchi, and others fermented foods are good examples.

Lecture 55: Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Recent periods, it is also available in pill form and also added ingredient in products yogurt and health drinks. Kefir is found a milk drink with fermented using kefir grains as potent source of probiotics. It contains lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in high numbers with diversity nature 50 different or more types of bacteria It has more consistency in drinking food with yoghurt and it is traveling into the digestive tract via colonizing the colon.

Currently, consumption of functional foods or nutraceutical food in everyday diet as its parts has demonstrated to potential health benefits. Probiotics are most important and frequently used as functional food compound as it is healthy dairy products and been an excellent source of nutritious foods Such probiotic dairy foods has beneficially affect on the host by improving survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora or by selectively stimulating the growth or activating the catabolism.

It contains one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract, or by improving the gastrointestinal tract's microbial balance.